The effects of geographic distance and factors including latitude, elevation and the rate and extent of disturbance are considered to be major determinants of the structure and diversity of communities of macroorganisms and warrant further investigation in microbial communities. It is widely accepted that similarity in the composition of communities of macroorganisms decreases with increased distance between samples. However, the extent to which microbial communities adhere to such biogeographic patterns remains unclear. The large number of soil samples collected across the New Zealand landscape provide us many opportunities to explore the extent to which microbial communities exhibit biogeography. What are the major factors influencing the biogeography of soil bacterial communities across New Zealand?